International journal of humanities, literature & arts <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>IJHLA </strong>is published in English and it is open to authors around the world regardless of the nationality. The issued frequency is annual or one issue per year publication.<br>ISSN 2632-9441</p> Scientific & Literature Open Access Publishing en-US International journal of humanities, literature & arts 2632-9441 <p>Articles published in the International Journal of Humanities, Literature &amp; arts (<strong>IJHLA</strong>) are available under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives Licence (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC-ND 4.0</a>). Authors retain copyright in their work and grant <strong>IJHLA&nbsp;</strong>right of first publication under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles in this journal, and to use them for any other lawful purpose.</p> <p>Articles published in <strong>IJHLA&nbsp;</strong>can be copied, communicated and shared in their published form for non-commercial purposes provided full attribution is given to the author and the journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (<em>e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book</em>), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> Characteristics and functioning of brain on learning process <p style="text-align: justify;">Research refers to the topic “brain and learning in education” with the purpose of determining the characteristics and functioning of the brain in the learning process of the students of the Millennium Education Unit “Replica Manta” of the city of Manta. Through this work, a conceptual analysis of the influence that neurosciences have as a contribution in education, stimulation as an influential factor to activate memory, multiple intelligences as abilities to solve life problems and motivation as interest are presented that students have for their own learning.</p> María José Briceño Ruperti William Ecuador Martínez Albán Dubal Edison Salvatierra Tumbaco María Elena Moya Martínez Copyright (c) 2020 International journal of humanities, literature & arts 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 3 1 1 6 10.31295/ijhla.v3n1.99 The multiple postcolonial identify in salman rushdie’s shame <p style="text-align: justify;">Post-colonialism focuses on cultural and national identity in literature produced by the people of current or former colonies in places like the Middle East, South Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. Many postcolonial authors delve into the issue of gender when expressing their ideas about post-colonialism. How an individual that lives in does, comes from, or has a history with a certain country or region which has been colonized, shape his or her identity? In the work of many Middle Eastern and South Asian authors, gender is one of the best tools to use when exploring identity. In Salman Rushdie’s novel Shame, masculinity and femininity are important factors in how certain characters function. This growing desire to define identity as it relates to the characters in Shame is not only confined to the individuals in the story, but it is also an issue relevant to the nation of Pakistan as well. Most of the characters in the story are symbolic references to actual political figures in Pakistan. In addition, they also represent different periods in the country’s history, both political and social. Rushdie subverts the question commonly posed to migrant intellectuals about their “exilic” identity issues.</p> P. Murugesan S. Neelakandan G. Sankar Copyright (c) 2020 International journal of humanities, literature & arts 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 3 1 7 12 10.31295/ijhla.v3n1.120 Balinese cosmology: Study on pangider bhuwana colors in Gianyar’s contemporary art <p style="text-align: justify;">Adat (custom) and religion cannot be separated in the context of Balinese culture. One of the aspects of Balinese culture is the concept of <em>mandala</em>, called <em>pangider bhuwana.</em> Based on Balinese culture and religion, the Balinese <em>mandala</em>, is formally known as <em>pangider bhuwana.</em> &nbsp;The main focus of this essay is to explore the way the artist expresses and visualizes, using the colors of the mandala. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on the methods that the colors of the Balinese mandala are visualized in Gianyar's contemporary painting.</p> I Wayan Karja I Ketut Ardhana I Wayan Subrata Copyright (c) 2020 International journal of humanities, literature & arts 2020-03-16 2020-03-16 3 1 13 17 10.31295/ijhla.v3n1.127 Adam and Eve Iconography <p style="text-align: justify;">Art historians use the discipline of iconography to identify and describe symbols and themes in the subjects of visual arts. The iconographic inquiry is particularly useful for explaining the religious significance of Christian art. One of the first stories the Christian Bible conveys concerns, Adam and Eve. According to the biblical book of Genesis, Adam and Eve were the first man and woman that God created. Adam and Eve disobeyed God’s directive not to eat the forbidden fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Christians believe Adam and Eve’s disobedience brought sin and death into the world. This essay explores a select cross-section of portrayals of Adam and Eve during various eras of European art history. The goal is to use iconographic analysis to place the Adam and Eve theme within distinct contexts and by so doing better understand its complex functions.</p> James W. Ellis Copyright (c) 2020 International journal of humanities, literature & arts 2020-05-07 2020-05-07 3 1 18 31 10.31295/ijhla.v3n1.130 Architecture various forms of sanggah kemulan taksu in Denpasar <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study was to answer the phenomenon of doubt about the existence of the <em>sanggah kemulan taksu</em> regarding various forms of architecture, representative forms, and public perceptions, especially in the city of Denpasar. The Bali uniqueness was in its culture. One of them was traditional Balinese architecture which in this case is represented by <em>sanggah kemulan</em> <em>taksu </em>architecture, which was classified as <em>parahyangan architecture </em>with special appearance, function, and structure. Its existence since the XI century was the year 1001 AD (Çaka 923) and was a fact (relics of material/artifact; social life/<em>sociofact</em>; and concerns about belief/<em>mentifact</em>) which was a living monument. The method used was phenomenology, supported by the concepts and theories of phenomenology, philosophy, religion and religion, architecture, symbols, and perception. The sources and objects of research observations were determined purposively by conducting structured interviews. From the requirements of the resource persons there are 35 object sources and of the 35 objects considered sufficient to be represented by 20-50 percent. Following the level of representativeness and fulfillment of criteria, 16 informants were scattered in four sub-districts in the city of Denpasar, all of whom were active <em>bandesa</em> who were <em>desa </em><em>adat</em> community leaders in their respective.</p> I Wayan Meganada Wayan Suka Yasa Wayan Budi Utama Copyright (c) 2020 International journal of humanities, literature & arts 2020-07-19 2020-07-19 3 1 32 40 10.31295/ijhla.v3n1.153 The cultural process of symbolic violence affecting introvert English education department students in educational universities in Bali <p style="text-align: justify;">This research is aimed at investigating the cultural process of symbolic violence affecting introvert students in English education departments of educational universities in Bali; Mahasaraswati University Denpasar, Ganesha Univesity Singaraja of Education, and IKIP Saraswati Tabanan. The subjects of this study were the introvert students of English education departments in those educational universities. The introvert students were decided through Myers – Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test. The data were gathered through in-depth interviews with a blueprint formalized with the keys of symbolic domination namely, (1) Habitus, (2) Arena, and (3) Capital. The critical qualitative approach is used as the approach of this study; therefore, the analysis style is critical descriptive.</p> I Ketut Ardhana I Made Pageh Ni Luh Arjani Ni Putu Desi Wulandari Copyright (c) 2020 International journal of humanities, literature & arts 2020-10-07 2020-10-07 3 1 41 50 10.31295/ijhla.v3n1.172 Management of character education based on local assistance <p>Quality education is a fundamental principle that must be developed in the realm of education because it is seen as important in creating advanced, civilized, moral, and character humans. The standard of good morality refers to the provisions of Law Number 20 the Year 2003 Chapter II, article (3) that national education aims to develop the potential of students to become human beings who believe and fear God Almighty. Character education based on local wisdom is education that adopts local educational values to instill and build good and superior character. This is inseparable from all elements, principals, teachers, employees, and society by carrying out goals by cultivating discipline, noble character to all students which have an impact on the formation of Hindu character following the hopes and goals of the school through its vision and mission.</p> I Gusti Agung Jaya Suryawan Copyright (c) 2020 International journal of humanities, literature & arts 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 3 1 51 60 10.31295/ijhla.v3n1.183