Information For Authors

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International journal of health & medical sciences

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Tihnov Koldoris
ISSN: 2632-9433 (Online)
Frequency: Annually (2018-2020) Quarterly (2021-present)

Abstracting / Indexing / Archiving

International journal of health & medical sciences (IJHMS) is a peer-reviewed journal covering all areas of medical sciences from basic research to clinical and experimental work. It publishes articles pertaining to all fields of medical sciences including medicine, dentistry and applied medical sciences, which provide contribution to medical knowledge. Articles may include new experimental methods of medical importance, new experimentally obtained results, new interpretation of existing results or data pertaining to clinical problems, or epidemiological work of substantial scientific significance. All such articles should aim for the development of medical concepts rather than merely recording the facts. Incomplete studies will be strongly discouraged. The journal categorizes articles into Original, Systematic reviews/Meta-analysis (NOT simple Review), Case Report, Rapid communication and Letter to the Editor. Each type of article has a special format and should comply with the updated IJHMS Instructions for Authors, which are published in all issues.

Articles involving human/animal specimen, patients/volunteers, patient images, or case reports: Studies on these subjects require Ethical Approval from Institutional Review Board/Local Ethical Committee and Patients Consent. If the patient has died, then consent for publication must be sought from the next of kin of the patient. Both Ethical Approval and Patients Consent statements should be documented in the article, if appropriate.

Policies

Quality is at the heart of the international journal of health & medical sciences. Acting with integrity and transparency, we seek to build partnerships with authors, editors and readers alike. As such, this journal will:

• never ask authors to pay a submission fee
• never ask authors to pay an APC (article processing charge) for publication
• never publish works in exchange for gifts or money
• never falsely claim to represent another person or entity
• never use your data without consent

Authorship

An author is considered anyone involved with initial research design, data collection and analysis, manuscript drafting, and final approval. However, the following do not necessarily qualify for authorship: providing funding or resources, mentorship, or contributing research but not helping with the publication itself. The primary author assumes responsibility for the publication, making sure that the data are accurate, that all deserving authors have been credited, that all authors have given their approval to the final draft; and handles responses to inquiries after the manuscript is published.

Screening for Plagiarism

Manuscripts submitted to the international journal of health & medical sciences will be screened for plagiarism using SafeAssignments/Turnitin/CopyScape/Similarity Check/iThenticate plagiarism detection tools. This journal will immediately reject papers leading to plagiarism or self-plagiarism.

Data Sharing

International journal of health & medical sciences requests all authors to make available “all data underlying the findings described in their manuscripts.” Authors are encouraged to maintain the anonymity of the participants in both qualitative and quantitative data before sharing it with the editors or the public. The research method is at the core of editor and peer evaluation of manuscripts. This journal adopts the data sharing policy as recommended by the 2011 AERA Council and its Code of Ethics, which stated:

• Education researchers share data and pertinent documentation as a regular practice. Education researchers make their data available after completion of the project or its major publication for verification or other analyses by other researchers, except where proprietary agreements with employers, contractors, or clients preclude such accessibility or when it is impossible to share data in any useful form.
• In sharing data, education researchers take appropriate steps to protect the confidentiality of the data and the identity of research participants. When appropriate future use necessitates access to identifiable data, researchers take steps to ensure that the data are accessible under appropriate restrictions where the confidentiality of research participants can be secured.
• Education researchers anticipate data sharing as an integral part of a research plan whenever data sharing is feasible.

Publication

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Published articles are listed in major databases such as OCLC/WorldCat, PKP, Base, Neliti, Google Scholar, and Microsoft Academic, etc.

Authors receive an electronic copy of published articles. We encourage authors to online download. If you have any questions about the publication, you can contact us.

Focus and Scope

To publish articles in all fields of medical sciences, including medicine, dentistry, nursing and applied medical sciences that provide sufficient contribution to medical knowledge. Articles may include new experimental methods of medical importance; new results obtained experimentally; new interpretation of existing results or data pertaining to clinical problems; or epidemiological work giving substantial scientific information pertaining to medical sciences.

All such articles should aim for the development of medical concepts rather than mere recording of facts. Incomplete studies are discouraged and will have very low chances of acceptance unless offering real values.

Objectives of the Journal

1. To publish original, well documented, peer reviewed clinical and basic science articles.
2. To inculcate the habit of medical writing.
3. To enable physicians to remain informed in multiple areas of medicine, including developments in fields other than their own.
4. To share the experience and knowledge for benefit of healthcare providers.
5. To document medical problems pertinent to community as diabetes, leishmaniasis, heat stroke, smoking, obesity, prevention of road side accident.
6. To achieve the highest level of ethical medical journalism and to produce a publication that is timely, credible, and enjoyable to read

Authorship and Contribution

The International journal of health & medical sciences recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals recommend that authorship be based on the following five criteria:

1. Substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data.
2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
3. Final approval of the version to be published.
4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
5. All authors must be signed on Authorship and Contribution Agreement form.

It is important to note

1. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone, does not justify authorship.
2. All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed.
3. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

Manuscript Submission

All manuscripts must be submitted through the journal's online submission system at https://sloap.org/journal/index.php/ijhms. Submissions made via email or mailed to the editorial office will NOT be processed. An author submitting the manuscript for the first time is required to register online and create a profile as an author. This enables author to receive login credentials for manuscript submission. An author declaration is a mandatory part of a submission. This covers a number of logistic issues which are described in Peer Review Process. Before submission make sure that the manuscript conforms to the journal guidelines for the preparation of the manuscript.

Editorial Office Contact Information

International journal of health & medical sciences (IJHMS), 53c Gilbey Road, Tooting Broadway, London, United Kingdom, SW17 0QH. Phone: +44 (0)303 1234 500 e-mail: ijhms@sloap.org

Article Types

For submission of the following article types, please follow the list below:
Original Articles
Systematic Reviews/Meta-analysis
Case Reports/Case series
Rapid/Special/Short Communications
Letters to the Editor
Editorials

Instructions for Authors

Original Articles

Manuscript must be in good English, typewritten using Times New Roman font size 10 only, single-spaced with one inch margin on all sides.

All manuscripts must be accompanied by a certificate signed by the corresponding author and all coauthors that they have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript and that the article has NOT been published or submitted to any other journal for publication. The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining permission from the copyright owner for the use of any copyrighted material in the submitted article.

Each original article must contain

1. Title page
Title page should contain the following information:
1. Complete title of the article
2. Name(s) of author(s)
3. Department(s)
4. Institution(s) at which work was performed
5. Official phone/fax no, mobile phone no, personal e-mail address of the corresponding author, and institutions address.

2. Structured Abstract
Abstract should be factual condensation of the entire work and should NOT exceed 250 words and must be written under the following subheadings:
1. Objectives
2. Methodology
3. Results
4. Conclusion

3. Text
Text must be arranged under the following headings:
1. Introduction
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
5. Conclusion(s)
6. Ethics approval and consent to participate
7. Availability of data and material (Details - https://authorservices.taylorandfrancis.com/data-sharing-policies/data-availability-statements/)
8. Competing interests
9. Funding Statement
10. Authors’ contributions
11. Acknowledgements (if any)
12. ORCID link of the corresponding author (https://orcid.org/login)

If any of the sections are NOT relevant to your article, please write 'Not applicable'.

Introduction provides a brief survey of literature, purpose of the study, etc.; the Methodology and procedures should be concise but detailed enough to enable the reader to reproduce the experiment. Commonly used procedures and methods need not be described but require a reference to the original source. In Result Section only findings, presented in the form of tables or figures, should be included without duplication of presentation and no discussion of the significance of the data. Discussion should present the significance of the data under the prevalent understanding of the phenomenon. Speculative discussion is allowed but it should be concise and corroborated by the presented data. Conclusion summarizes the study and is drawn from the results and discussion. Acknowledgements, if any, should be placed at the end of the text and before references.

4. References
References should be listed consecutively as Alphabetically. The final bibliography should be in the order in which they are quoted in the text and written in APA Style as mentioned below:
(i). Standard journal article.
For single author, for example; Anwar, S. (2023). Fingertip injury: A case report in emergency departments. International Journal of Health & Medical Sciences, 6(3), 169-172. https://doi.org/10.21744/ijhms.v6n3.2181

For two or three authors, for example; Wardani, I. A. K., & Kurniawan, L. S. (2023). Analysis of anxiety and depression in young adult patients with suicide attempts in the emergency department RSUP Prof. Dr. IGNG Ngoerah Denpasar. International Journal of Health & Medical Sciences, 6(4), 207-214. https://doi.org/10.21744/ijhms.v6n4.2200

For seven or more authors, for example; Silva, H. K. da, Ximenes, J. D., Alves, M. M., Pereira, N., Part, E. C. M., Salsinha, E., Deus, E. de, & Monteiro, E. (2024). Knowledge of hepatitis B virus infection and attitudes towards hepatitis b virus vaccination among students of the faculty of medicine and health sciences at the National University of Timor-Lorosae. International Journal of Health & Medical Sciences, 7(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.21744/ijhms.v7n1.2232

(ii). Chapter in a book.
Wahyuni, A. A. S., Vasmana, I. G., Evilia, W., & Marianto, M. (2023). Psychoneuroimmunology of depression and its relation to the gut-brain axis: Literature review. International Journal of Health & Medical Sciences, 6(2), 118-125. https://doi.org/10.21744/ijhms.v6n2.2146

5. Tables and Figures (or Images)
Tables and figures, complete with legends and footnotes, should be on separate pages. The tables and figures pages should be consecutively numbered. Position of the tables or figures in the text must be indicated.

Instructions for Preparation of Images

Please note: An image can refer to the following: Graphs, photographs, maps, charts, paintings, drawings, diagrams, etc.
Images must be embedded within the manuscript text of the article. Once the article accepted for publication, the author may be asked for an image in high resolution file format.

It is strongly recommended before embedding images in the manuscript, images must be prepared as mentioned below in the image specifications section.

Image specifications
Images must be prepared in accordance with the instructions mentioned on the PubMed Central website: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/pub/filespec-images.

The key factor for preparation of images for sufficient quality is images must have a minimum resolution of 300 dots per inch (dpi) for the grayscale (or black and white) and at least 600 dpi for color scale. The acceptable image formats are tiff, jpeg, gif, psd or png.

Image Copyright
For any image that the authors have not made themselves, the authors will need to have written permission to reproduce that image, even if the image is posted on the internet. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission to use the images, not the publishers. Permission must be obtained in writing before the article can be submitted.

For complete information, please visit the Copyright Agency Limited website: http://www.copyright.com.au/get-information/about-copyright

Systematic Reviews/Meta-Analysis

Systematic Reviews or Meta-Analysis should be systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to clinical or basic sciences topics that includes a statistical technique for quantitatively combining the results of multiple studies that measure the same outcome into a single pooled investigation. Data must be searched for and selected systematically for inclusion and critically evaluated, and the search and selection process must be mentioned. The text should NOT exceed 6000 words excluding abstract, references, tables and figures.

Each of the sections of these articles should include specific sub-sections as follows:

Structured Abstract: (Not exceeding 250 words):
1. Objectives
2. Methodology
3. Results
4. Conclusion

Introduction:
1. Rationale
2. Objectives
3. Research question

Methods:
1. Study design
2. Participants, interventions, comparators
3. Systematic review protocol
4. Search strategy
5. Data sources, studies sections and data extraction
6. Data analysis

Results:
1. Provide a flow diagram of the studies retrieved for the review
2. Study selection and characteristics
3. Synthesized findings
4. Risk of bias

Discussion:
1. Summary of main findings
2. Limitations
3. Conclusions

Declaration Statements:
1. Competing interests
2. Funding Statement
3. Authors’ contributions
4. Acknowledgements (if any)
5. ORCID link of the corresponding author (https://orcid.org/login)

If any of the sections are NOT relevant to your article, please write 'Not applicable'. For all other information’s including title page, declaration statements, typing and reference style, please follow the original articles instructions.

Case Reports/Case Series

The case report/series will only be considered if they represent unique first time or rarest-of-the-rare observations and should have clinical significance, new adverse effect(s) of a drug or other unique observations, etc. Patient consent for publication must be obtained from the patient in written or, if this is not possible, the next of kin before submission. The author(s) must have been involved in the care of the patient.

Case Report /case series should contain a single paragraph abstract and text should not exceed 1000 words (excluding abstract, references, tables and figures) with maximum 10 bibliographic references and either three figures or three tables. Each case report must contain:

1. Summary (should not exceed 120 words)
2. Introduction
3. Case Presentation
4. Discussion
5. Conclusion
6. Patient consent
7. Availability of data and material (Details - https://authorservices.taylorandfrancis.com/data-sharing-policies/data-availability-statements/)
8. Competing interests
9. Funding Statement
10. Authors’ contributions
11. Acknowledgements (if any)
12. ORCID link of the corresponding author (https://orcid.org/login)

If any of the sections are NOT relevant to your article, please write 'Not applicable'.

Authors must describe how the case report is unique, rarest-of-the-rare or unusual as well as its educational and/or scientific merits in the covering letter that accompanies the submission of the manuscript.

For all other information including title page, typing and reference style, please follow the instructions for original articles.

Rapid/Special/Short Communications

Rapid/Special/Short communication should be complete work, such as complete results of a short pilot study, not merely a preliminary report and should not exceed 1500 words with one figure and/or one table. An editorial decision will be provided rapidly without reviews. For writing and references style, follow the same instructions listed above.

Letters to the Editor

Opinions on topics and articles recently published in the journal will be considered for publication if they are objective and constructive in nature and provide some academic or clinical interest to the readers. These letters may also be forwarded to the author of the cited article for possible response. The editor reserves the right to shorten these letters, delete objectionable comments, make other changes, or take any other suitable decision to comply with the style and policies of the journal. For writing and references style, follow the same instructions listed above.

Editorials

Editorial will be written either by a member of the editorial board or someone invited by the editor as solicited by the Editor-in-Chief. It should have fewer than 1200 words or so without abstract, no figures or tables. Editorials are generally concise scientific review on one or two of the hot topics pertaining to medical sciences. It may also be an opinion-based that discusses the key findings of research article(s) and places it in a broader context within the field. For writing and references style, follow the same instructions listed above.

Peer Review Process

1. Manuscript Processing
Upon initial submission of the manuscript, the author will be acknowledged of the receipt via e-mail. Initially an article will be reviewed by one member of the Editorial team to judge the quality of the paper. Articles written in poor English language or not conforming to IJHMS guidelines will either be rejected or returned to the authors to rectify the shortcomings. Manuscripts deemed proper should be forwarded to at least two subject experts to provide their unbiased input. Acceptable manuscripts will be checked for data analysis and verification of references before the author will be notified about the status of the paper with any suggestions for modifications. Finally accepted articles should be forwarded to the printer for typeset and formatting, etc. and the proof will send to the authors for proof reading, before publication.

2. Peer Review Policy
Unbiased, independent, critical assessment is an intrinsic part of all scholarly work, including the scientific process. Peer review is the critical assessment of manuscripts submitted to journals by experts who are not part of the editorial staff, and is, therefore, an important extension of the scientific process. Each article submitted to IJHMS for publication is reviewed by at least two senior specialists of the concerned specialty. The Double Blind Peer Review process is strictly followed and, in certain controversial cases, the opinion of a 3rd reviewer can also be sought.

3. Conflict of Interest
Conflict of interest exists when as author (or the author's institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions (such relationship are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). However, conflicts can also occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion. Increasingly, individual studies receive funding from commercial firms, private foundations, and the government. The conditions of this funding have the potential to bias and otherwise discredit the research. When authors submit a manuscript, they are required to disclose all financial and personal relationships that might bias their work. To prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts do or do not exist.

It is the discretion of editorial committee of IJHMS to resolve any conflict of interest between the author(s) and reviewers. Editors may choose not to consider an article for publication if they feel that the research is biased by the sponsors funding the research project.

4. Plagiarism
Plagiarism is the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and representing them as ones own original work. Within the academia, it is considered dishonesty or fraud and offenders are subject to academic censure. Plagiarism can be unintentional or intentional, reproducing academic material without appropriate credit to the original authors. Similarly self-plagiarism is the re-use of significant, identical or near identical portions of ones own work without citing the original work. This is also known as Recycling Fraud. Worst form of plagiarism is to steal the whole article from some journal and publish it under ones own name in another journal. The Editorial Committee of IJHMS will blacklist any author found to be guilty of plagiarism. The name of author(s) committing plagiarism will also be disseminated to editors of other medical journals.

5. Ethical Issues
Human clinical trials and studies conducted in animals (or not) must have been approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). In the absence of such a formal ethics review committee, the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and/or the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, as adopted and promulgated by the United States National Institutes of Health, must be followed. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. In case of any study involving clinical trial, taking of informed consent of patients is mandatory. Whenever editorial committee of IJHMS feels necessary, the research paper will be referred to the Research Ethic Committee of SLOAP for its evaluation and approval.

6. Editorial Committee
The Editorial committee consisting of the Editor- in-Chief, Associate Editor, Editors, Assistant Editor(s) and the editorial secretaries meet at least twice a month to expedite the business of the journal. The editorial committee follows the guidelines provided by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication which can be downloaded from http://www.icmje.org/

7. Advisory Board
An advisory board comprising of members with significant professional experience in different fields of medical sciences helps the Editorial Committee in policy matters when needed. Senior specialists from Saudi Arabia, as well as professionals from foreign countries are members of the Board.

Open Access Policy

IJHMS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports for global exchange of knowledge. Publication in IJHMS is fully supported by SLOAP; therefore there is No Publication Charges for the authors.

Article Withdrawal Policy

Submission of an article to IJHMS implies that the work has NOT been published or submitted elsewhere, therefore, the journal is strongly against unethical withdrawal of an article from the publication process after submission. Once the article is submitted, the author grants the editorial board full publishing rights and it is the absolute right of the editorial board to decide on article withdrawals. For genuine withdrawal, the corresponding author should submit a request which must be signed by all co-authors explaining the reason of withdrawing the manuscript. The request will be processed by the editorial board and only serious genuine reasons will be considered if possible. The decision of the editorial board will be final and not negotiable. Unethical withdrawal or no response from the authors to editorial board communication will be subjected to sanction a ban of 4 years to all authors, and their institute will also be notified.

Modifications to Authorship

Authors should provide the complete and final list of authors at the time of the submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authors list should be made only BEFORE the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editorial Board. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (1) The reason for the change in author list; (2) Written confirmation from all authors that their agreement with the addition, removal or rearrangement.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors After the manuscript has been Accepted. If the manuscript has already been Published in an online issue, any requests of addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors will Not be considered.

Copyright Notice

Authors must agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
2. Articles published in the International Journal of Health & Medical Sciences (IJHMS) are available under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Authors retain copyright in their work and grant IJHMS right of first publication under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles in this journal, and to use them for any other lawful purpose.
3. Articles published in IJHMS can be copied, communicated and shared in their published form for non-commercial purposes provided full attribution is given to the author and the journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in the journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of the journal and will not be made available for any other purpose and will not be shared to any other party.

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors should require checking off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration.
2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word document file format.
3. The text is double-spaced; uses a 10-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
4. Submit a single manuscript file that contains title page, abstract, all text files, figures, tables, and references.
5. References should be listed consecutively as Alphabetically. The final bibliography should be in the order in which they are quoted in the text and must be written in APA's style.

Guidelines for Reviewers

1. An unpublished manuscript is a privileged document. Please protect it from any form of exploitation. Don't cite a manuscript or refer to the work it describes before it has been published and don't use the information that it contains for the advancement of your own research or in discussions with colleagues.
2. Adopt a positive, impartial attitude toward the manuscript under review, with the aim of promoting effective and constructive scientific communication. If you believe that you cannot judge a given article impartially, please return it immediately to the editor.
3. Reviews must be completed within 3 weeks. If you know that you cannot finish the review within that time, immediately return the manuscript to the editor.
4. In your review, consider the following aspects of the manuscript: (a). Significance of research question or subject studied. (b) Originality of work: It should be checked through plagiarism software. (c) Appropriateness of approach or Methodology. (d) Adequacy of experimental techniques. (e) Soundness of conclusions and interpretation. (f) Relevance of discussion (g) Adherence to style as set forth in instructions to authors. (h) Adequacy of title and abstract. (i) Appropriateness of figures and tables. (j) Length of article. (k) Adherence to correct nomenclature (genetic, enzyme, drug, biochemical, etc.). (l) Appropriate literature citations.
5. Any help you can give in clarifying meaning will be appreciated. If you wish to mark the text of the manuscript, use a pencil or make a photocopy, mark it, and return it together with the original.
6. You can be particularly helpful in pointing out unnecessary illustrations and data that are presented in both tabular (and graphic) form and in detail in the text. Such redundancies are a waste of space and readers time.
7. A significant number of authors have not learnt how to organize data and will be benefit from your guidance.
8. Do not discuss the paper with its authors.
9. In your comments intended for transmission to the author, dont make any specific statement about the acceptability of a paper. Suggested revision should be stated as such and not expressed as conditions of acceptance. Present criticism dispassionately and avoid offensive remarks.
10. Organize your review so that an introductory paragraph summarizes the major findings of the article, gives your overall impression of the paper and highlights the major shortcomings. This paragraph should be followed by specific numbered comments which if appropriate may be subdivided into major and minor points.
11. Confidential remarks directed to the editor should be typed (or handwritten) on a separate sheet, not on the review form. You might want to distinguish between revisions considered essential and those judged merely desirable.
12. Your criticisms, arguments and suggestions concerning the paper will be most useful to the editor and to the author if they are carefully documented. Do not make dogmatic, dismissive statements, particularly about the novelty of work. Substantiate your statements.
13. Reviewers recommendations are gratefully received by the editor. However, since editorial decisions are usually based on evaluations derived from several sources, reviewers should not expect the editor to honor every recommendation.
14. Categories of recommendation: accept, reject, modify, or convert to some other form. Very few papers qualify for accept upon original submission for publication except for minor style changes.
15. Keep a copy of the review in your files. The manuscript may be returned to you for a second review. You might require this copy to evaluate the author’s responses to your criticisms.

Peer Review Process

1. Manuscript Processing
Upon initial submission of the manuscript, the author will be acknowledged of the receipt via e-mail. Initially an article will be reviewed by one member of the Editorial team to judge the quality of the paper. Articles written in poor English language or not conforming to IJHMS guidelines will either be rejected or returned to the authors to rectify the shortcomings. Manuscripts deemed proper should be forwarded to at least two subject experts to provide their unbiased input. Acceptable manuscripts will be checked for data analysis and verification of references before the author will be notified about the status of the paper with any suggestions for modifications. Finally accepted articles should be forwarded to the printer for typeset and formatting, etc. and the proof will send to the authors for proof reading, before publication.

2. Peer Review Policy
Unbiased, independent, critical assessment is an intrinsic part of all scholarly work, including the scientific process. Peer review is the critical assessment of manuscripts submitted to journals by experts who are not part of the editorial staff, and is, therefore, an important extension of the scientific process. Each article submitted to IJHMS for publication is reviewed by at least two senior specialists of the concerned specialty. The 'double blind process is strictly followed and, in certain controversial cases, the opinion of a 3rd reviewer can also be sought.

3. Conflict of Interest
Conflict of interest exists when as author (or the author's institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influences (bias) his or her actions (such relationship are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). However, conflicts can also occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion. Increasingly, individual studies receive funding from commercial firms, private foundations, and the government. The conditions of this funding have the potential to bias and otherwise discredit the research. When authors submit a manuscript, they are required to disclose all financial and personal relationships that might bias their work. To prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts do or do not exist.

It is the discretion of editorial committee of IJHMS to resolve any conflict of interest between the author(s) and reviewers. Editors may choose not to consider an article for publication if they feel that the research is biased by the sponsors funding the research project.

4. Plagiarism
Plagiarism is the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and representing them as one's own original work. Within the academia, it is considered dishonesty or fraud and offenders are subject to academic censure. Plagiarism can be unintentional or intentional, reproducing academic material without appropriate credit to the original authors. Similarly self-plagiarism is the re-use of significant, identical or near identical portions of one's own work without citing the original work. This is also known as 'Recycling fraud. Worst form of plagiarism is to steal the whole article from some journal and publish it under one's own name in another journal. The Editorial Committee of IJHMS will blacklist any author found to be guilty of plagiarism. The name of author(s) committing plagiarism will also be disseminated to editors of other medical journals.

5. Ethical Issues
Human clinical trials and studies conducted on human/animals must have been approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). In the absence of such a formal ethics review committee, the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and/or the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, as adopted and promulgated by the United States National Institutes of Health, must be followed. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. In case of any study involving clinical trial, taking of informed consent of patients is mandatory. Whenever editorial committee of IJHMS feels necessary, the research paper will be referred to the Research Ethic Committee of SLOAP for its evaluation and approval.

6. Editorial Committee
The Editorial committee consisting of the Editor- in-Chief, Associate Editor, Editors, Assistant Editor(s) and the editorial secretaries meet at least twice a month to expedite the business of the journal. The editorial committee follows the guidelines provided by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication which can be downloaded from http://www.icmje.org/

7. Advisory Board
An advisory board comprising of members with significant professional experience in different fields of medical sciences helps the Editorial Committee in policy matters when needed. Senior specialists from Saudi Arabia, as well as professionals from foreign countries are members of the Board.

Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.