International journal of linguistics, literature and culture <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>IJLLC&nbsp;</strong>is published in English and it is open to authors around the world regardless of the nationality. It is currently published six times a year, i.e. in&nbsp;<em>January, March, May, July, September,&nbsp;</em>and<em>&nbsp;November.&nbsp;</em></p> Scientific and Literature Open Access Publishing en-US International journal of linguistics, literature and culture 2455-8028 <p>Articles published in the International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture (<strong>IJLLC</strong>) are available under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives Licence (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC-ND 4.0</a>). Authors retain copyright in their work and grant <strong>IJLLC&nbsp;</strong>right of first publication under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles in this journal, and to use them for any other lawful purpose.</p> <p>Articles published in <strong>IJLLC&nbsp;</strong>can be copied, communicated and shared in their published form for non-commercial purposes provided full attribution is given to the author and the journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (<em>e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book</em>), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>This copyright notice applies to articles published in <strong>IJLLC&nbsp;</strong>volumes 6 onwards. Please read about the copyright notices for previous volumes under&nbsp;<a href="">Journal History</a>.</p> The role of the subject “literature” in forming personality in modern secondary schools <p style="text-align: justify;">In the current time, one of the important tasks of modern schools is to prepare a highly educated student who can think creatively and independently in any situation. In the realization of this task, literature, as a school discipline, which forms the inner world and valuable orientations of students, plays a large role. The study of literature can have crucial importance in the education of the independent personality possessing esthetical taste. Scholars consider the subject of literature as a critical study of literary texts. They clarify that one of the main aims of the subject is the critical analysis of how language is used in different types of texts to identify meaning and find out text elements. With the help of reading various literary texts, students in secondary education of modern schools can receive skills of critical analysis through connecting the meaning of these texts with their lives and the world. Besides, teaching literature in secondary education can provide the ability to imagine the inner and outer worlds of any substance, to solve and investigate important, present, and future problems individually. A considerable number of scholars and studies have attempted to describe the importance of this discipline.</p> Gultas Kurmanbay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-08 2020-05-08 6 4 1 5 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.900 Raees as Macbeth-A transcultural adaptation <p style="text-align: justify;">Literary adaptation is a process, which reproduces the pre-existent literary piece of work into a series of altering characters, settings, actions, and storylines. Adaptations of canonical texts of great authors such as Shakespeare had won the universal dignity. By using Hutcheon’s adaptation theory, this research aimed to scrutinize the impact of the transcultural adaptations of <em>Macbeth</em> as <em>Raees</em> by Government College University Dramatic Club, Lahore. The reception of Shakespeare as the manifestation of the British culture involved many social, cultural, and political factors that were analyzed in this research by using Hutcheon’s concept of "indigenization" (2103:150). I had collected data from source texts, scripts, articles, interviews, observations, questionnaires, and group discussions. The Government College University Dramatic Club, Lahore team made the variations in the text to make it appropriate to the native/local culture. These variations were significant in making the transcultural adaptation as a success in the native culture.</p> Sundas Shafiq Nadia Anwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-08 2020-05-08 6 4 6 15 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.901 Gender discourse analysis in Ursula K. Le Guin’s Earthsea series and its Turkish translation <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to analyze the Earthsea Series, written by Ursula K. Le Guin, regarding how language is used by the author and its transference in Turkish translation in terms of cultural and linguistic elements of gender. Since the series was written in 23 years, they might, within themselves, indicate a considerable amount of differences in language used. Therefore, the translation of the series might adapt those differences following the target culture’s transformation in that time shift. The source text and the target text are both examined with the Critical (Gender) Discourse Analysis approach concerning linguistic and cultural gender. The target text is also analyzed through source text adaptation in Turkish translation as well as female translation strategies. The fact that there are significant differences not only in languages of the source text and the target text but also in their cultures. Thus, this study demonstrates those significant differences in the source text and their transference in Turkish translation.</p> Deniz Özgün ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-10 2020-05-10 6 4 16 26 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.902 Forming the historical consciousness of the student through teaching fiction <p style="text-align: justify;">Teaching fiction is closely related to science because any&nbsp;sphere of&nbsp;science involves theoretical and applied practical meaning.&nbsp;While forming a fiction-reading student by teaching literature we should take into account&nbsp;both theoretical and applied systems of the literature and pay attention to its artistic nature.&nbsp;When the meaning of the word, a concept, or an idea influence the student, he/she starts to think deeply and attentively. Moreover, reading fiction affects consciousness differently. On one hand, it may encourage an individual to act, on the other hand, it may invoke his&nbsp;interest in the subject (literature)&nbsp;and encourage him/her to read fiction. Teaching is a bilateral process, hence, its quality is&nbsp;directly related to&nbsp;the&nbsp;attitudes of the student and the&nbsp;level of cognitive activity&nbsp;and didactic improvement of&nbsp;the&nbsp;teacher’s&nbsp;work.&nbsp;Improving critical thinking improves students’ cognitive activity. The literature of any nation develops in a close relationship with its history. Any scientific sphere is also closely related to history. There is no life beyond history as well as literature.&nbsp;Therefore, teaching fiction is an extremely effective way of forming historical consciousness. The public opinion in Kazakhstan is formed through the history and&nbsp;literature&nbsp;of the Kazakh nation.</p> Zhanar Abdigapbarova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 6 4 27 37 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.903 The language of American political discourse: Aristotle's rhetorical appeals as manifested in Bush's and Obama's speeches on the war on terror <p style="text-align: justify;">This article employs critical discourse analysis to analyze the representation of the “war on terror” in the political speeches of Presidents George Bush and Barack Obama in the decade following 9/11; it examines Aristotle's approach into the study of the language of persuasion through his three main rhetorical appeals: ethos, pathos, and logos, identifying several strands of the war on terror discourse and analyzing the way they influence the persuasiveness of the speeches and therefore the ability to generate public debate. The findings show substantial similarities in representation patterns among the two presidents' discourses and end up to the conclusion that the language of the war on terror is not simply a neutral or objective reflection of policy debates of terrorism and counterterrorism; rather, it is a carefully and deliberately constructed public discourse designed to make the war on terror look reasonable and morally justified.</p> Iman Raissouni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 6 4 38 48 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.904 Deconstructing the evolving roles of English language educators in the 21st century <p style="text-align: justify;">The English language is lingua franca, and although perceived as the global language of modernity and success, its viral spread has inadvertently created marginalizing socioeconomic inequalities. This position paper argues that English language educators in higher education should take a more active role in promoting and implementing University Social Responsibility (USR) programs. English teachers need not limit their focus on language teaching and cross-cultural communication but, at the same time, take on other roles aimed at addressing the needs of the marginalized.</p> Joseph Anthony Narciso Z. Tiangco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-12 2020-05-12 6 4 49 61 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.905 The impact of TV content on audience’ perception of materialism <p style="text-align: justify;">The researcher’s intent in the study is to explore television as a cause of materialism. The objective of this study pertains to explore the Impact of TV content (dramas, movies, talk shows, morning shows, awards shows, political shows, comedy shows, TV ads) on the audience’s perception of materialism. The study has been conducted on the citizens of Lahore. The results show a positive relationship between television watching and perceived materialism. Heavy exposure to TV watching increases materialism and has been found to have a significant effect on viewers’ materialistic perception. The purpose of the study is to make significant contributions to the field of research.</p> Saba Muneer Samara Munir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-13 2020-05-13 6 4 62 75 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.906 Deconstructing bond of signifier & signified: a corpus-based study of variation in meaning <p style="text-align: justify;">The study aimed at investigating a bond between the signifier and signified to explore and develop an in-depth understanding of meanings’ variation, by setting qualitative paradigm, textual examples were marked from text corpora and linguistic signifiers, believed to be representing the text were serialized using judgmental sampling. The key informant happened to be a text (The Reluctant Fundamentalist) taken as a unit of study, with the approach of Derrida’s deconstruction, signifiers were decoded and then qualitatively analyzed in terms of binary oppositions to mark variation in meaning. It resulted that words were not intrinsically meaningful but just types of sound or mark being meaningless in itself and they gave meaning by playing a role in something we did with them. The outcome of the whole endeavor was a play of meaning continued endlessly in connection with signifier and signified from one context to another. Stable meaning appeared to be a hopelessly unsuitable task in a text and with the contextual shift, it stood unnaturalized. The usefulness of analyzing text was adequate preparation for teaching turning contents into skill-oriented tasks and the process of meanings’ variation between signifier and signified widened the scope of developing Content Specification Charts concerning learners’ needs.</p> Marghoob Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-14 2020-05-14 6 4 76 87 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.907 Literary translation: implantation vs transference <p style="text-align: justify;">The figurative language employed by authors, which reflects their styles of writing, is one main reason behind the challenges that most literary translators encounter when dealing with literary works. Usually employed for aesthetic and poetic purposes, figures of speech imply connotative meanings. In literary works, words are used only assigns to settle down the flying spirits of meanings and ideas so that the audience can have a thread that could lead them to intended meanings. I believe that literary translators should face the challenges of translating literary works through two main approaches. First, transferring the work of art as it is without trying to find any equivalent in the target language for any piece of text in the source language. The aim of such type of translation would be familiarizing the audience in the target language with the literature and culture of the source language. Second, translating the SL work of art creatively, i.e. using all possible strategies and procedures to find natural equivalents in the TL for any stylistic features in the SLT. This type of translation should aim at pleasing and entertaining the TL audience.</p> AlZu’bi Khaled ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-16 2020-05-16 6 4 88 94 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.908 Representation of Iraqi prisoners' abuse in Judith Thompson's palace of the end: a politico-cultural perspective <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper is a study in the representation of the systematic abuse inflicted by the American Female Soldier (being an image of American militarism) upon the Iraqi prisoners in the Abu Ghraib jail. The American misconducts exercised are based on political and cultural grounds: it is dramatically evident that the American Female Soldier has prejudicially transformed the stage into a battleground, whereon, post colonially, the Iraqi prisoners are viciously addressed by demeaning terms.</p> Salih M. Hameed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-16 2020-05-16 6 4 95 102 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.909 Strategies of conveying metaphors in political discourse: analysis of the Turkish translations of George Orwell's “Animal Farm” <p style="text-align: justify;">Translating metaphor and metaphoric expressions is one of the disputable problems in translation studies due to the conceptual discrepancies which exist between the source culture and the target readership, moreover, if the metaphor plays a crucial role in creating an appeal to the reader as in the political text. In this respect, it is under the discussion of how to deal with a metaphor when translating political discourse, and what are the dominating strategies and traditions of translating metaphoric units in Turkish translations. Caused by the theoretical and practical urgency of the problem, this paper is aimed to analyze strategies of conveying metaphors from English to Turkish based on the novel “Animal Farm” by George Orwell and its Turkish translations by Sedat Demir and Celal Üster. To achieve the aims of the research the efforts were undertaken to compare the original text with its two different translations. For the precise analysis, Old Major’s speech was thoroughly scrutinized on the point of the metaphoric expressions in the text and their correspondences in the Turkish translations.</p> Iryna Sekret ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 6 4 103 114 10.21744/ijllc.v6n4.911