The challenge of managing hypertension in the elderly with a healthy lifestyle and medical treatment


  • Gunawan Widjaja Universitas Krisnadwipayana, Indonesia
  • Hotmaria Hertawaty Sijabat Universitas Krisnadwipayana, Indonesia


challenges, healthy lifestyle, hypertension, manage care, seniors


As humans get old, diseases come one by one. One of them is hypertension from level one to level two and three, which takes much attention and effort. This study aims to understand the challenges of managing hypertension in the elderly with a healthy lifestyle and drug treatment. To answer this problem, we have examined dozens of papers published in international journals between 2010 and 2020 to get the latest data. Next, we examine the phenomenological approach, which includes a data coding system and in-depth interpretation before concluding typical findings that are valid and have high reliability. This study relies on secondary data, and we searched with the help of technology in some electronic publications. Based on the data findings and discussion, we can summarize the findings: Normal blood pressure in the elderly (elderly) tends to be higher, that is, < 150 mmHg for systolic pressure and < 90 mmHg for diastolic pressure. This is because the blood vessels in the elderly tend to be stiffer, so the heart requires higher pressure to pump blood throughout the body.


Download data is not yet available.


Agudelo, E. L., Salvá, A. R., Piñera, A. D., Roche, R. G., De Vos, P., Battaglioli, T., & Van der Stuyft, P. (2019). Assessment of hypertension management and control: a registry-based observational study in two municipalities in Cuba. BMC cardiovascular disorders, 19(1), 1-10.

Agusnanto, M. (2013). Faktor–Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Hipertensi di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Cut Nyak Dhien Meulaboh Kabupaten Aceh Barat Tahun m2013 (Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Teuku Umar Meulaboh).

Al-oqla, F. M., Sapuan, S. M., Ishak, M. R., & Nuraini, A. A. (2015). Decision making model for optimal reinforcement condition of natural fiber composites. Fibers and Polymers, 16(1), 153-163.

Al-Yahya, E., Dawes, H., Smith, L., Dennis, A., Howells, K., & Cockburn, J. (2011). Cognitive motor interference while walking: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(3), 715-728.

Astuti, T. S. R., & Soewondo, P. (2019). Analisis Kesiapan Pembiayaan Hipertensi, Diabetes Melitus dan Gangguan Jiwa dalam Mendukung Program Indonesia Sehat dengan Pendekatan Keluarga (PIS PK) Tahun 2018-2020. Jurnal Ekonomi Kesehatan Indonesia, 3(1).

Babatsikou, F., & Zavitsanou, A. (2010). Epidemiology of hypertension in the elderly. Health Science Journal, 4(1), 24.

Byrd, J. B., Bisognano, J. D., & Brook, R. D. (2020). Approach to Secondary Hypertension. In Practical Cardiology (pp. 135-147). Springer, Cham.

Chapman, S. (2015). Symptoms, diseases and aberrant behaviours attributed to wind turbine exposure.

Chiong, J. R., Aronow, W. S., Khan, I. A., Nair, C. K., Vijayaraghavan, K., Dart, R. A., ... & Geraci, S. A. (2008). Secondary hypertension: current diagnosis and treatment. International journal of cardiology, 124(1), 6-21.

Dhanachandra Singh, K., Jajodia, A., Kaur, H., Kukreti, R., & Karthikeyan, M. (2014). Gender specific association of RAS gene polymorphism with essential hypertension: a case-control study. BioMed research international, 2014.

Doehner, W., Ural, D., Haeusler, K. G., ?elutkien?, J., Bestetti, R., Cavusoglu, Y., ... & Ruschitzka, F. (2018). Heart and brain interaction in patients with heart failure: overview and proposal for a taxonomy. A position paper from the Study Group on Heart and Brain Interaction of the Heart Failure Association. European journal of heart failure, 20(2), 199-215.

Edition, F. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Am Psychiatric Assoc, 21.

Faizal, B., Herlina, N., & Muflihatin, S. K. (2016). Pengaruh Konsumsi Buah Pisang Ambon (Musa Paradisiaca Var. Sapientum Linn) terhadap Penurunan Tekanan Darah pada Lansia Penderita Hipertensi di Wilayah Kerja PUSKESMAS Sidomulyo Samarinda.

Febrianti, E., Asrori, A., & Nurhayati, N. (2019). Hubungan Antara Peningkatan Kadar Asam Urat Darah Dengan Kejadian Hipertensi Di Rumah Sakit Bhayangkara Palembang Tahun 2018. Jurnal Analis Kesehatan, 8(1), 17-21.

Flack, J. M., & Adekola, B. (2020). Blood pressure and the new ACC/AHA hypertension guidelines. Trends in cardiovascular medicine, 30(3), 160-164.

Garcia?Tsao, G., Abraldes, J. G., Berzigotti, A., & Bosch, J. (2017). Portal hypertensive bleeding in cirrhosis: Risk stratification, diagnosis, and management: 2016 practice guidance by the American Association for the study of liver diseases. Hepatology, 65(1), 310-335.

Gholamnejad, H., Darvishpoor-Kakhki, A., Ahmadi, F., & Rohani, C. (2019). Self-actualization: Self-care outcomes among elderly patients with hypertension. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research, 24(3), 206.

Gilbert, M. B. (2021). Surviving Adolescence: Helping Teens Endure the Roller-Coaster Ride. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Gradman, A. H., Basile, J. N., Carter, B. L., Bakris, G. L., & American Society of Hypertension Writing Group. (2010). Combination therapy in hypertension. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 4(2), 90-98.

Hacihasano?lu, R., & Gözüm, S. (2011). The effect of patient education and home monitoring on medication compliance, hypertension management, healthy lifestyle behaviours and BMI in a primary health care setting. Journal of clinical nursing, 20(5?6), 692-705.

Harrison, D. G., Gongora, M. C., Guzik, T. J., & Widder, J. (2007). Oxidative stress and hypertension. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 1(1), 30-44.

Hu, H., Cheng, J., Lin, S., Wang, S., & Chen, X. (2020). Calcified Aortic Valve Disease in Patients With Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 76(5), 506-513.

Ibrahim, M. M., & Damasceno, A. (2012). Hypertension in developing countries. The Lancet, 380(9841), 611-619.

Ioannidis, J. P. (2018). The proposal to lower P value thresholds to. 005. Jama, 319(14), 1429-1430.

Jokanovic, N., Wang, K. N., Dooley, M. J., Lalic, S., Tan, E. C., Kirkpatrick, C. M., & Bell, J. S. (2017). Prioritizing interventions to manage polypharmacy in Australian aged care facilities. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 13(3), 564-574.

King, D. E., Mainous III, A. G., & Geesey, M. E. (2007). Turning back the clock: adopting a healthy lifestyle in middle age. The American journal of medicine, 120(7), 598-603.

Lake, C. R. (2012). Schizophrenia is a Misdiagnosis: Implications for the DSM-5 and the ICD-11. Springer Science & Business Media.

Latifin, K., Purwanto, S., & Wahyuni, D. (2020). Aplikasi Keperawatan Komplementer “Cupping” Dalam Mengontrol Hipertensi di Masa Pandemi COVID-19. Applicable Innovation of Engineering and Science Research (AVoER), 374-377.

Laxmaiah, A., Meshram, I. I., Arlappa, N., Balakrishna, N., Rao, K. M., Reddy, C. G., ... & Brahmam, G. N. V. (2015). Socio-economic & demographic determinants of hypertension & knowledge, practices & risk behaviour of tribals in India. The Indian journal of medical research, 141(5), 697.

Loef, M., & Walach, H. (2012). The combined effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors on all cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive medicine, 55(3), 163-170.

Mahendradhata, Y., Trisnantoro, L., Listyadewi, S., Soewondo, P., Marthias, T., Harimurti, P., & Prawira, J. (2017). The Republic of Indonesia health system review.

Maitland, M. L., Bakris, G. L., Black, H. R., Chen, H. X., Durand, J. B., Elliott, W. J., ... & Cardiovascular Toxicities Panel, Convened by the Angiogenesis Task Force of the National Cancer Institute Investigational Drug Steering Committee. (2010). Initial assessment, surveillance, and management of blood pressure in patients receiving vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway inhibitors. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 102(9), 596-604.

Marshall, B., Cardon, P., Poddar, A., & Fontenot, R. (2013). Does sample size matter in qualitative research?: A review of qualitative interviews in IS research. Journal of computer information systems, 54(1), 11-22.

Miranda, A. M., Steluti, J., Fisberg, R. M., & Marchioni, D. M. (2016). Association between polyphenol intake and hypertension in adults and older adults: A population-based study in Brazil. PloS one, 11(10), e0165791.

Mitchell, G. F., Hwang, S. J., Vasan, R. S., Larson, M. G., Pencina, M. J., Hamburg, N. M., ... & Benjamin, E. J. (2010). Arterial stiffness and cardiovascular events: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation, 121(4), 505-511.

Myers, T. J., Bolmers, M., Gregoric, I. D., Kar, B., & Frazier, O. H. (2009). Assessment of arterial blood pressure during support with an axial flow left ventricular assist device. The Journal of heart and lung transplantation, 28(5), 423-427.

Nguyen, C. T., Wagenführ, A., Dai, V. H., Bremer, M., & Fischer, S. (2012). The effects of thermal modification on the properties of two Vietnamese bamboo species, Part I: effects on physical properties. BioResources, 7(4), 5355-5366.

Obreli-Neto, P. R., Marusic, S., Guidoni, C. M., Baldoni, A. D. O., Renovato, R. D., Pilger, D., ... & Pereira, L. R. L. (2015). Economic evaluation of a pharmaceutical care program for elderly diabetic and hypertensive patients in primary health care: a 36-month randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy, 21(1), 66-75.

Oliva, R. V. (2019). A review on the status of hypertension in six Southeast Asian Countries. Hypertension, 5(2).

Pedersen, M. W., Ruter, A., Schweger, C., Friebe, H., Staff, R. A., Kjeldsen, K. K., ... & Willerslev, E. (2016). Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor. Nature, 537(7618), 45-49.

Perez, V., & Chang, E. T. (2014). Sodium-to-potassium ratio and blood pressure, hypertension, and related factors. Advances in nutrition, 5(6), 712-741.

Pinto, F., Suwiyoga, I. K., Widiana, I. G. R., & Yasa, I. W. P. S. (2017). Health behavior and status related to mother's death in Timor-Leste. International Research Journal of Engineering, IT and Scientific Research, 3(4), 57-65.

Prabantini, D. (2010). A to Z makanan pendamping ASI. Penerbit Andi.

Rajpura, J., & Nayak, R. (2014). Medication adherence in a sample of elderly suffering from hypertension: evaluating the influence of illness perceptions, treatment beliefs, and illness burden. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 20(1), 58-65.

Rantanen, P., Parkkari, T., Leikola, S., Airaksinen, M., & Lyles, A. (2017). An in-home advanced robotic system to manage elderly home-care patients’ medications: A pilot safety and usability study. Clinical therapeutics, 39(5), 1054-1061.

Riebe, D., Greene, G. W., Ruggiero, L., Stillwell, K. M., Blissmer, B., Nigg, C. R., & Caldwell, M. (2003). Evaluation of a healthy-lifestyle approach to weight management. Preventive medicine, 36(1), 45-54.

Savitri, D. (2017). Diam-diam mematikan, cegah asam urat dan hipertensi. Anak Hebat Indonesia.

Scharf, E. L., Graff-Radford, J., Przybelski, S. A., Lesnick, T. G., Mielke, M. M., Knopman, D. S., ... & Vemuri, P. (2019). Cardiometabolic health and longitudinal progression of white matter Hyperintensity: The Mayo Clinic Study of aging. Stroke, 50(11), 3037-3044.

Schiffrin, E. L., Campbell, N. R., Feldman, R. D., Kaczorowski, J., Lewanczuk, R., Padwal, R., & Tobe, S. W. (2016). Hypertension in Canada: past, present, and future. Annals of global health, 82(2), 288-299.

Sgier, L. (2012). Qualitative data analysis. An Initiat. Gebert Ruf Stift, 19, 19-21.

Sofiana, L., Puratmadja, Y., Sari, B. S. K., Pangulu, A. H. R., & Putri, I. H. (2018). Pengetahuan Tentang Hipertensi Melalui Metode Penyuluhan. Jurnal Pemberdayaan: Publikasi Hasil Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, 2(1), 171-176.

Suiraoka, I. P. (2012). Penyakit degeneratif. Yogyakarta: Nuha Medika, 45-51.

Tiara, U. I. (2020). Hubungan Obesitas Dengan Kejadian Hipertensi. Journal of Health Science and Physiotherapy, 2(2), 167-171.

Visser, M. (2010). Since Eve Ate Apples Much Depends on Dinner: The Extraordinary History and Mythology, Allure and Obsessions, Perils and Taboos of an Ordinary Mea. Open Road+ Grove/Atlantic.

Yen, T. S. (2020). Nasehat buat Sehat (Cover Baru ISBN LAMA). Gramedia Pustaka Utama.



How to Cite

Widjaja, G., & Sijabat, H. H. (2021). The challenge of managing hypertension in the elderly with a healthy lifestyle and medical treatment. International Journal of Life Sciences & Earth Sciences, 4(1), 44-52.