The brake pressure depends upon the pedal ratio

  • Julia Sophie Lotte University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Daan Sem Luuk University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Sven Noah Max Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • Alexander Simon Nick Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
Keywords: master cylinder, pedal, proper pedal, ratio, vehicle


The brake disc having a factor of safety (FOS) within the range of 2 to 3 is sustainable. The disc with a FOS less than 2 or greater than 3 undergoes distortion and are less sustainable. Theoretically it has been proven using graphs and calculations that a slight variation in the pedal ratio leads to a large variation in the clamping forces and stopping distance. As per the comparisons made from the FOS and as per result from Ansys, when the pedal force is 1200N and the pedal ratios are 7.2and 4.5, the FOS are 2.1 and 2.8 respectively. Hence the disc is sustainable. When the pedal force is 1500N, and the pedal ratio is 4.5, the FOS is 2.2. Hence in this case too, the disc is sustainable. Therefore by maintaining proper pedal ratios, the length of the pedal can be made compact and with effective braking effects. This phenomenon is useful in case of racing vehicles as it reduces the effort of driver. The proper pedal design work also determines the size of master cylinder to be adopted for the vehicle.


Download data is not yet available.


Barbarisi, O., Palmieri, G., Scala, S., & Glielmo, L. (2009). LTV-MPC for yaw rate control and side slip control with dynamically constrained differential braking. European Journal of Control, 15(3-4), 468-479.

Bera, T. K., Bhattacharya, K., & Samantaray, A. K. (2011). Evaluation of antilock braking system with an integrated model of full vehicle system dynamics. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 19(10), 2131-2150.

Chargin, M. L., Dunne, L. W., & Herting, D. N. (1997). Nonlinear dynamics of brake squeal. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 28(1), 69-82.

El-Tayeb, N. S. M., & Liew, K. W. (2009). On the dry and wet sliding performance of potentially new frictional brake pad materials for automotive industry. Wear, 266(1-2), 275-287.

Eriksson, M., Bergman, F., & Jacobson, S. (2002). On the nature of tribological contact in automotive brakes. Wear, 252(1-2), 26-36.

Hui, S., & Junqing, J. (2010). Research on the system configuration and energy control strategy for parallel hydraulic hybrid loader. Automation in Construction, 19(2), 213-220.

Kamijo, K., Nishihira, Y., Higashiura, T., & Kuroiwa, K. (2007). The interactive effect of exercise intensity and task difficulty on human cognitive processing. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 65(2), 114-121.

Kim, Y. C., Cho, M. H., Kim, S. J., & Jang, H. (2008). The effect of phenolic resin, potassium titanate, and CNSL on the tribological properties of brake friction materials. Wear, 264(3-4), 204-210.

Kinkaid, N. M., O'Reilly, O. M., & Papadopoulos, P. (2003). Automotive disc brake squeal. Journal of sound and vibration, 267(1), 105-166.

Park, E. J., Stoikov, D., da Luz, L. F., & Suleman, A. (2006). A performance evaluation of an automotive magnetorheological brake design with a sliding mode controller. Mechatronics, 16(7), 405-416.

Söderberg, A., & Andersson, S. (2009). Simulation of wear and contact pressure distribution at the pad-to-rotor interface in a disc brake using general purpose finite element analysis software. Wear, 267(12), 2243-2251.

Tretsiak, D. V., Kliauzovich, S. V., Augsburg, K., Sendler, J., & Ivanov, V. G. (2008). Research in hydraulic brake components and operational factors influencing the hysteresis losses. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 222(9), 1633-1645.

Van Winsum, W. (1999). The human element in car following models. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 2(4), 207-211.

How to Cite
Lotte, J. S., Luuk, D. S., Max, S. N., & Nick, A. S. (2019). The brake pressure depends upon the pedal ratio. International Research Journal of Management, IT and Social Sciences, 6(6), 178-187.
Research Articles