Factor analysis on the agricultural technology adoption and arabica coffee productivity in Kintamani District, Bangli Regency



  • I Putu Hedi Sasrawan Faculty of Economics and Business, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
  • Ni Nyoman Yuliarmi Faculty of Economics and Business, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia


agricultural technology adoption, factory of production, farmer’s characteristics, productivity


The economy of Bali requires diversification through optimization of the agricultural sector. Arabica coffee is a potential commodity to diversify the agricultural sector and maximizing the potential of the highland at Kintamani District, Bangli Regency. Productivity must be improved considering that agricultural land in Bali is limited and many have been converted to residential or commercial use. According to evolutionary theory, agricultural productivity can be increased by technology. However, the technology application needs to be supported by adequate human resources and factors of production. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of farmer characteristics, production factors, and agricultural technology adoption on productivity, as well as to analyze the indirect effect of farmer characteristics and production factors on productivity through agricultural technology adoption. The area sampling method obtained a total sample of 98 farmers in 10 villages in the Kintamani District, Bangli Regency. Area sampling is carried out in two stages, first is determining regional samples and determining the respondents in each area by accident. The data collection methods are observation, structured interviews using questionnaires, and in-depth interviews. The data analysis technique used partial least square. 


Download data is not yet available.


Adhitya, F. W., Hartono, D., & Awirya, A. A. (2013). Determinan produktivitas lahan pertanian subsektor tanaman pangan di Indonesia. Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan: Kajian Masalah Ekonomi dan Pembangunan, 14(1), 110-125.

Ahmad, B., Yani, A. A., & Rakhmat, R. (2020, December). Local Government Innovation in Agriculture Development: A Case Study of Bantaeng Regency, Indonesia. In Iapa Proceedings Conference (pp. 66-79).

Ainembabazi, J. H., & Mugisha, J. (2014). The role of farming experience on the adoption of agricultural technologies: evidence from smallholder farmers in Uganda. Journal of Development Studies, 50(5), 666-679.

Aji, P. (2015). Summary of Indonesia’s Poverty Analysis (ADB papers on Indonesia). Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

Alexander, J., & Alexander, P. (1982). Shared poverty as ideology: agrarian relationships in colonial Java. Man, 597-619.

Andriaty, E., & Setyorini, E. (2012). Availability of Agricultural Technology Information Sources in Several Regencies in Java. Journal of Agricultural Library, 21(1), 30-35.

Antle, J. M., & Capalbo, S. M. (1988). An introduction to recent developments in production theory and productivity measurement. Agricultural productivity: Measurement and explanation, 17-95.

Areal, F. J., Clarkson, G., Garforth, C., Barahona, C., Dove, M., & Dorward, P. (2020). Does TV edutainment lead to farmers changing their agricultural practices aiming at increasing productivity?. Journal of Rural Studies, 76, 213-229.

Asfaw, S., Shiferaw, B., Simtowe, F., & Lipper, L. (2012). Impact of modern agricultural technologies on smallholder welfare: Evidence from Tanzania and Ethiopia. Food policy, 37(3), 283-295.

Ashari, A. (2010). Pendirian Bank Pertanian di Indonesia:“Apakah Agenda Mendesak?”. Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, 8(1), 13-27.

Asih Kuswardinah, F. T. (2012). Penguatan Sikap Tindak Wirausaha Melalui Pendidikan Teknologi Pengolahan Hasil Pertanian. Jurnal Pendidikan Vokasi, 2(1), 63-70.

Avila, A. F. D., Romano, L., & Garagorry, F. (2010). Agricultural productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean and sources of growth. Handbook of agricultural economics, 4, 3713-3768. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0072(09)04071-7

Barrow, M. (2009). Statistics for economics, accounting and business studies. Pearson Education.

Black, A. W. (2000). Extension theory and practice: a review. Australian journal of experimental agriculture, 40(4), 493-502.

Bold, T., Kaizzi, K. C., Svensson, J., & Yanagizawa-Drott, D. (2017). Lemon technologies and adoption: measurement, theory and evidence from agricultural markets in Uganda. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 132(3), 1055-1100.

Bravo-Monroy, L., Potts, S. G., & Tzanopoulos, J. (2016). Drivers influencing farmer decisions for adopting organic or conventional coffee management practices. Food policy, 58, 49-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.11.003

Brecher, C., Özdemir, D., & Weber, A. R. (2017). Integrative production technology—theory and applications. In Integrative Production Technology (pp. 1-17). Springer, Cham.

Bro, A. S., Clay, D. C., Ortega, D. L., & Lopez, M. C. (2019). Determinants of adoption of sustainable production practices among smallholder coffee producers in Nicaragua. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 21(2), 895-915.

Carvalho, F. M., Moksunova, V., & Spence, C. (2020). Cup texture influences taste and tactile judgments in the evaluation of specialty coffee. Food Quality and Preference, 81, 103841. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2019.103841

Challa, M., & Tilahun, U. (2014). Determinants and impacts of modern agricultural technology adoption in west Wollega: the case of Gulliso district. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 4(20), 63-77.

Debertin, D. L. (2012). Agricultural production economics.

Dewi, I. A. L., & Sudarma, I. M. (2020). Faktor-Faktor Pendukung Keberlanjutan Usahatani Kopi Arabika di Provinsi Bali. SOCA: Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, 14(1), 158-168.

Dewi, I. A. N. U., & Yuliarmi, N. N. (2017). Pengaruh modal, tenaga kerja, dan luas lahan terhadap jumlah produksi kopi arabika di Kecamatan Kintamani Kabupaten Bangli. E-Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan, 6(6), 1127-1156.

Estudillo, J. P., & Otsuka, K. (2010). Rural poverty and income dynamics in Southeast Asia. Handbook of Agricultural Economics, 4, 3435-3468. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0072(09)04067-5

Fan, S., & Brzeska, J. (2010). Production, productivity, and public investment in East Asian agriculture. Handbook of agricultural economics, 4, 3401-3434. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0072(09)04066-3

Feder, G., Just, R. E., & Zilberman, D. (1985). Adoption of agricultural innovations in developing countries: A survey. Economic development and cultural change, 33(2), 255-298.

Fereres, E., & Villalobos, F. J. (2016). Agriculture and agricultural systems. In Principles of Agronomy for Sustainable Agriculture (pp. 1-12). Springer, Cham.

Foster, A. D., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (2010). Microeconomics of technology adoption. Annu. Rev. Econ., 2(1), 395-424.

Fuglie, K. O. (2018). Is agricultural productivity slowing?. Global food security, 17, 73-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2018.05.001

Fuglie, K. O., Wang, S. L., & Ball, V. E. (Eds.). (2012). Productivity growth in agriculture: an international perspective. CABI.

Ghazali, D. (2008). Kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan dalam kajian kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Jurnal Institut Perguruan Islam. April.

Gollin, D. (2010). Agricultural productivity and economic growth. Handbook of agricultural economics, 4, 3825-3866. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0072(09)04073-0

Gollin, D., Lagakos, D., & Waugh, M. E. (2014). The agricultural productivity gap. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 129(2), 939-993.

Gurtner, Y. K. (2007). Crisis in Bali: Lessons in tourism recovery. Crisis management in tourism, 81-97.

Habib, A. (2015). Analisis faktor–faktor yang mempengaruhi produksi jagung. AGRIUM: Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian, 18(1).

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2021). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications.

Hazell, P. B. (2010). An assessment of the impact of agricultural research in South Asia since the green revolution. Handbook of agricultural economics, 4, 3469-3530. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0072(09)04068-7

Hendayana, R. (2013). Penerapan metode regresi logistik dalam menganalisis adopsi teknologi pertanian. Informatika Pertanian, 22(1), 1-9.

Hermawan, H., & Andrianyta, H. (2012). Lembaga keuangan mikro agribisnis: terobosan penguatan kelembagaan dan pembiayaan pertanian di perdesaan.

HERYANA, I. P. A., SUDARMA, I. M., & PUTRA, I. G. S. A. (2016). Perbandingan Pendapatan antara Usahatani Kopi dan Usahatani Jeruk di Desa Serai Kecamatan Kintamani Kabupaten Bangli. Journal of Agribusiness and Agritourism, 5(1), 1-9.

Hodgson, G. M., & Huang, K. (2012). Evolutionary game theory and evolutionary economics: are they different species?. Journal of evolutionary economics, 22(2), 345-366.

Hodgson, G. M., & Lamberg, J. A. (2018). The past and future of evolutionary economics: Some reflections based on new bibliometric evidence. Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review, 15(1), 167-187.

Huch, M., & Franz, C. M. A. P. (2015). Coffee: fermentation and microbiota. In Advances in fermented foods and beverages (pp. 501-513). Woodhead Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-015-6.00021-9

Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies. Strategic management journal, 20(2), 195-204.

Jain, R., Arora, A., & Raju, S. S. (2009). A novel adoption index of selected agricultural technologies: Linkages with infrastructure and productivity. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 22(1), 109-120.

Jara-Rojas, R., Bravo-Ureta, B. E., & Díaz, J. (2012). Adoption of water conservation practices: A socioeconomic analysis of small-scale farmers in Central Chile. Agricultural Systems, 110, 54-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2012.03.008

Jena, P. R. (2019). Can minimum tillage enhance productivity? Evidence from smallholder farmers in Kenya. Journal of Cleaner Production, 218, 465-475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.278

Jimenez, J. R. P. (2019). Mainstream and evolutionary views of technology, economic growth and catching up. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 29(3), 823-852.

Kassie, M., Shiferaw, B., & Muricho, G. (2011). Agricultural technology, crop income, and poverty alleviation in Uganda. World development, 39(10), 1784-1795.

Kath, J., Byrareddy, V. M., Craparo, A., Nguyen?Huy, T., Mushtaq, S., Cao, L., & Bossolasco, L. (2020). Not so robust: Robusta coffee production is highly sensitive to temperature. Global change biology, 26(6), 3677-3688.

Kebede, T. A. (2001). Farm household technical efficiency: A stochastic frontier analysis. A study of Rice producers in Mardi Watershed in the Western Development Region of Nepal, A Masters Thesis Submitted to Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway.

Keith, T. Z. (2019). Multiple regression and beyond: An introduction to multiple regression and structural equation modeling. Routledge.

Klerkx, L., Van Mierlo, B., & Leeuwis, C. (2012). Evolution of systems approaches to agricultural innovation: concepts, analysis and interventions. Farming Systems Research into the 21st century: The new dynamic, 457-483.

Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications.

Kondo, K., Cacho, O., Fleming, E., Villano, R. A., & Asante, B. O. (2020). Dissemination strategies and the adoption of improved agricultural technologies: The case of improved cassava varieties in Ghana. Technology in Society, 63, 101408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101408

Koundouri, P., Nauges, C., & Tzouvelekas, V. (2006). Technology adoption under production uncertainty: theory and application to irrigation technology. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88(3), 657-670.

Kuntariningsih, A., & Mariyono, J. (2013). Dampak pelatihan petani terhadap kinerja usahatani kedelai di Jawa Timur. Sosiohumaniora, 15(2), 130-138.

Listyati, D., Sudjarmoko, B., & Hasibuan, A. M. (2013). Analisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi benih unggul kopi di Lampung. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, 4(2), 165-174.

Maheswari, R., Ashok, K. R., & Prahadeeswaran, M. (2008). Precision farming technology, adoption decisions and productivity of vegetables in resource-poor environments. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 21(conf), 415-424.

Mankiw, N. G. (2006). The macroeconomist as scientist and engineer. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(4), 29-46.

Marginson, S. (2019). Limitations of human capital theory. Studies in Higher Education, 44(2), 287-301.

Mariano, M. J., Villano, R., & Fleming, E. (2012). Factors influencing farmers’ adoption of modern rice technologies and good management practices in the Philippines. Agricultural Systems, 110, 41-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2012.03.010

Maridelana, V. P., Hariyati, Y., & Kuntadi, E. B. (2014). Fungsi Keuntungan Usahatani Kopi Rakyat di Desa Belantih Kecamatan Kintamani Kabupaten Bangli. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian, 1(3), 47-52.

Marinoudi, V., Sørensen, C. G., Pearson, S., & Bochtis, D. (2019). Robotics and labour in agriculture. A context consideration. Biosystems Engineering, 184, 111-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2019.06.013

Mayrowani, H. (2013, May). Kebijakan penyediaan teknologi pascapanen kopi dan masalah pengembangannya. In Forum Penelitian Agro Ekonomi (Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 31-49).

Mekonnen, D. K., Spielman, D. J., Fonsah, E. G., & Dorfman, J. H. (2015). Innovation systems and technical efficiency in developing?country agriculture. Agricultural economics, 46(5), 689-702.

Mignouna, D. B., Manyong, V. M., Rusike, J., Mutabazi, K. D. S., & Senkondo, E. M. (2011). Determinants of adopting imazapyr-resistant maize technologies and its impact on household income in Western Kenya.

Mohamad, M. M., Sulaiman, N. L., Sern, L. C., & Salleh, K. M. (2015). Measuring the validity and reliability of research instruments. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204, 164-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.129

Nelson, R. R. (2008). Economic development from the perspective of evolutionary economic theory. Oxford development studies, 36(1), 9-21.

Nelson, R. R. (2016). Economic development as an evolutionary process. In Handbook of alternative theories of economic development. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Nuriasih, N. N., Viprianti, N. N. U., & Tariningsih, D. (2018). Analisis pendapatan kopi kintamani kopi kintamani. Agrimeta: Jurnal Pertanian Berbasis Keseimbangan Ekosistem, 8(16), 32-38.

Nuryanti, S., & Swastika, D. K. S. (2011, December). Peran kelompok tani dalam penerapan teknologi pertanian. In Forum penelitian agro ekonomi (Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 115-128).

Özdemir, D. (2016). Applied statistics for economics and business. Springer.

Perkebunan, D. J. (2018). Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia 2018-2020. Tebu. Stat. Perkeb. Indones, 2020, 1-68.

Permana, I.F.B., & Sukana, M. (2019). Penurunan Jumlah Lahan dan Perubahan Budidaya Tanaman Kopi Bali Kintamani Mengancam Destinasi Wisata Kopi di Kintamani. Jurnal Destinasi Pariwisata, 7 (2), p:295-303.

Pornel, J. B., & Saldaña, G. A. (2013). Four common misuses of the Likert scale. Philippine Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities University of the Philippines Visayas, 18(2), 12-19.

Rada, N. E., & Fuglie, K. O. (2012). 10 Shifting Sources of Agricultural Growth in Indonesia: A Regional Analysis. Productivity Growth in Agriculture: An International Perspective, 199.

Rasmussen, S. (2012). Production economics: the basic theory of production optimisation. Springer Science & Business Media.

Reimers, M., & Klasen, S. (2013). Revisiting the role of education for agricultural productivity. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 95(1), 131-152.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations fifth Ed Free Press. New York. Rezvani, Z., Jansson, J. & Bodin.

Samuelson, P. A., & Nordhaus, W. D. (2009). Macroeconomics 19e.

Saravanadurai, A., & Manimehalai, N. (2016). Primary agricultural credit societies in India. International Research Journal of Engineering, IT and Scientific Research, 2(7), 51-61.

Š?mane, S., Kunda, I., Knickel, K., Strauss, A., Tisenkopfs, T., des Ios Rios, I., ... & Ashkenazy, A. (2018). Local and farmers' knowledge matters! How integrating informal and formal knowledge enhances sustainable and resilient agriculture. Journal of Rural Studies, 59, 232-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.01.020

Susilowati, S. H., & Maulana, M. (2012). Luas lahan usaha tani dan kesejateraan petani: eksistensi petani gurem dan urgensi kebijakan reforma agraria. Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, 10(1), 17-30.

Syed, S., & Miyazako, M. (Eds.). (2013). Promoting investment in agriculture for increased production and productivity. CABI.

Takahashi, K., Muraoka, R., & Otsuka, K. (2020). Technology adoption, impact, and extension in developing countries’ agriculture: A review of the recent literature. Agricultural Economics, 51(1), 31-45.

Teixeira, H. M., Bianchi, F. J., Cardoso, I. M., Tittonell, P., & Pena-Claros, M. (2021). Impact of agroecological management on plant diversity and soil-based ecosystem services in pasture and coffee systems in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 305, 107171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2020.107171

Tey, Y. S., & Brindal, M. (2012). Factors influencing the adoption of precision agricultural technologies: a review for policy implications. Precision agriculture, 13(6), 713-730.

Thamrin, S. (2014). Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi produksi usahatani kopi arabika di Kabupaten Enrekang Sulawesi Selatan. Agric, 26(1), 1-6.

Todaro, M. P., & Smith, S. C. (2015). Economic Development, 12th Editions.

Tomé, E. (2011). Human resource development in the knowledge based and services driven economy: An introduction. Journal of European Industrial Training.

Udayana, I. G. B. (2017). Marketing strategies arabica coffee with information technology in Kintamani District Bangli. International Research Journal of Engineering, IT and Scientific Research, 3(3), 93-102.

Vink, A. P. (2013). Land use in advancing agriculture (Vol. 1). Springer Science & Business Media.

Weber, J. G. (2012). Social learning and technology adoption: The case of coffee pruning in Peru. Agricultural Economics, 43, 73-84.

White, D. S., Labarta, R. A., & Leguía, E. J. (2005). Technology adoption by resource-poor farmers: considering the implications of peak-season labor costs. Agricultural Systems, 85(2), 183-201.

Wiratama, I. D. M. P., Sudiarta, I. P., Sukewijaya, I. M., Sumiartha, K., & Utama, M. S. (2013). Kajian ketahanan beberapa galur dan varietas cabai terhadap serangan antraknosa di Desa Abang Songan Kecamatan Kintamani Kabupaten Bangli. E-Jurnal Agroekoteknologi Tropika, 2(2), 71-81.

Witt, U. (2016). Evolutionary economics and psychology. In Rethinking Economic Evolution. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Yaron, D., Voet, H., & Dinar, A. (1992). Innovations on family farms: the Nazareth region in Israel. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 74(2), 361-370.



How to Cite

Sasrawan, I. P. H., & Yuliarmi, N. N. (2021). Factor analysis on the agricultural technology adoption and arabica coffee productivity in Kintamani District, Bangli Regency. International Research Journal of Management, IT and Social Sciences, 8(6), 569-578. https://doi.org/10.21744/irjmis.v8n6.1940



Peer Review Articles